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 COMPOSITION OF SBT SEED OIL & PULP OIL 

 FATTY ACIDS WEIGHT %

  Palmitic Palmioleic Stearic Oleic Vaccenic linoleic linolenic
  16:0 16:1n-7 18:0 18:1n-9 18:n-7 18:2n-6 18:3n-3
Seed oil 6-10 <0.5 2-4 15-20 2-4 35-40 20-35
Pulp oil 15-40 15-50 1-2 10-20 5-10 5-15 5-10
  Carotenoids mg/100g Plant Sterol weight % Tocopherols & Tocotrienols mg/100g
Seed oil 10-50 1-2 100-200
Pulp oil 100-400 2-3 100-400

 

SEABUCKTHORN FRUIT OIL

Seabuckthorn is a plant that can be utilized by both foodstuff and medicine products. There are two sources of oil in seabuckthorn: the seed and the pulp. Seabuckthorn pulp oil is gotten through high centrifugal speed and separation from raw pulp. Seabuckthorn seed oil is processed from seabuckthorns seeds and extracted. In comparison with seabuckthorn pulp oil, the seed oils are highly unsaturated with up to 85% or more of the fatty acids making up the oil being linoleic or linolenic. Pulp oil is more saturated with about 30% of the fatty acids being palmitic, and 14%-50% of the fatty acids being palmitoleic acid. The difference between seed and pulp oil seems to lie in the relatively high content of C16 fatty acids in the pulp oil and the relatively high proportion of C18 fatty acids in the seed oil. In addition, carotenoids in seabuckthorn pulp oils are higher than that in seed oils. The content of carotenoids in pulp oil is 100 mg/100g and the content of carotene is 5 mg/100g. Both pulp and seed oils from seabuckthorn contain plenty of vitamin E content (100 mg/100g). Each 100g seabuckthorn oil contains 200 mg of VE of which the most active substance VE rank over 95%, 80 mg of carotenoid in which the content of carotene reaches 6mg, over 800mg of total sterol in which more than 500mg of sitosterol . It also includes more than 160 kinds of life active substances such as anthocyanin . It is a rare treasury rich in life active factors. Usage guidelines: 1 Proceed to medicine and health food; take orally directly or proceed take orally liquid soft capsule production. 2 Cosmetics production: seabuc

kthron seed oil contains more compounds that can be absorbed easily by skin, such as saturated fatty acid, dissociative fatty acid, hydrocarbon, sterol, lecithoid, VE, VA and so on. So it is natural and perfect and nontoxic without side effect in the aspect of skin nutrition. Use for cosmetics series and daily necessaries and so on. 3 It has obvious and long-term function with good treatment to various wound such as burn, scald, bedsore, mouth ulcer, etc. 4 Used to foodstuff additive or nutritional supplement.

 

It was recorded in traditional Pharmacopoeia that seabuckthorn oil had the effection on relieving cough and removing phlegm, and it could improve bronchitis, chest choke, gastralgia, detumescene, amensalism, etc.. According to the research of modern medicine, sebuthorn oil had the following function on medical treatment and health care: * It can prevent the cancer with the obvious roles on assistant treatment. It also can improve the immunity to lighten the damage from radiotherapy. * Effects on anti-aging and immunity improvement. * Effects on anti-radiation. It was proved by test that it has the protection to heart, spleen, liver, lung, marrow for radiotherapy. It can protect the organs for create blood and restore the function of blood creation organs. * Effects on anti-inflammation and increasing muscles. It has obvious and long-term function with the treatment on gastric ulcer and good treatment to various wound such as burn, scald, bedsore, mouth ulcer, etc. Dosage: Twice a day, 2 capsules each time take orally

 

Seabuckthorn oil

Sea buckthorn berry is rich in oil both in seeds(seed oil) and in the fruit soft parts i.e. flesh and peel (pulp oil). Seeds contain typically around 10% oil,whereas the oil content in the soft parts varies over a much wider range from 0.5 to 10% (f. w.), largely depending on origins and varieties.
Sea buckthorn seed oil and pulp oil differ considerably in fatty acid composition (Table I). While linoleic (18:2n-6) and α-linolenic (18:3n-3) acids are the major fatty acids in the seed oil, the high level of palmitoleic acid (16:1n-7, up to 50%) differentiates sea buckthorn pulp oil from most other oils of plant origine

EFFECTS OF SEABUCKTHORN OIL ON MUCOUS MEMBRANES

 

EFFECTS STUDY COMMENTS

Gastric & duodenal mucosa
►Protect & strengthen mucosa
► Cure ulcere
► reduces gastric secretion      

►clinical trials
►Animals experiments

► Clear effects
► More studies on biochimical mechanism needed

Urogenital mucosa
►Cure cervicitis
►Anti inflammation

►Clinical practice
►Case report

►Mostly case reports and clinical practice

Mouth mucosa
►Speed up recovery and reparation of stomatitis and esophagitis
►Improve symptoms of dry mouth

►Clinical trials
►Animal experiments

►Mostly case reports and clinical practice

Anti-Inflammation
► Heal burns,wounds,scalds
► Promote tissue regeneration
►Anti-inflammatory and anagesic effects

►Clinical trials
►Animal experiments
► Clinical practice

►Results of study support health claims from tradional use and clinical practice

Anti-oxidation
►Reduce peroxidation of cell membrane
►Maintain membran structureand functions
►More effective than pure vitamine E

►Animal & in vitro studies
►In vivo studies in man

►Well designed experiments with promising results
►Maybe a fundamental mechanism related to most beneficial effects

Improve immune function
►Improve specific and non specific immune functions
►Antagonise the effects of immune suppressants

►Animal experiments
►Clinical studies

►Well designed experiments
►Conclusion based on results of animal experiments and linical study

Safety
►No side effects reported

►Animal studies
►Clinical experence

►Isolated and edible berry
►Safe to use

 

SEABUCKTHORN OIL AND HEALTH OF MUCOSUS MEMBRANES

Mucous membranes cover the digestive, respiratory, and urogenital tracts and the inner surface of eyes. Mucous membranes are important channels for interactions and
substance exchanges between human body and the environment. They are often the major routes for pathogens and external toxins and allergens to enter the body. Health condition of mucous membranes plays an important role in the general well-being of the whole body.Mucous membranes are constantly under the challenges of pulp oils against gastric ulcer have been extensively investigated using animal models.Intragastric seed oil protected rat gastric mucosa from reserpine-, water-immersionand pylorus-ligation-induced ulcer (5-7). Seed oil speeded up the healing of acetic acid- and reserpine-induced ulcers (7,8).
In these studies, sea buckthorn oil treatment decreased the ulcer index by 40-60%. Similar studies showed ulcer preventive and curative effects of oils from pulp/peel (7-9) and whole berries of sea buckthorn (7,10). Oil isolation technologymay have an impact on the anti-ulcerative efficacy of seabuckthorn oils by influencing the oil compositions.
The anti-ulcerative mechanism of sea buckthorn oils was related to promoting the regeneration of mucous membranes and the epithelialisation of ulcer areas (10). Sea buckthorn oil also inhibited gastric secretion (8) and proteolytic activity within gastric mucosa (10).
Furthermore, increasing the hydrophobicity of the surface of mucosa and retarding gastric emptying was suggested to be among the mechanisms involved.
β-sitosterol and β-sitosterol-β-D-glucoside in seabuckthorn oils are important for the anti-ulcerative activity (11-13). The efficacy of the two compounds may differ depending on the cause of ulcer formation (14).

ANTIOXIDATIVE ACTIVITY

The strong antioxidative activity of seabuckthorn oils is due to the high content of tocopherols and tocotrienols and carotenoids. All the natural isomers of vitamin E are present in sea buckthorn oils; α-tocopherol is the major one in pulp oil and γ-tocopherol in seed oil. Lycopene, α-, β-, and γ-carotenes are the main carotenoids in sea buckthorn oil. The natural isomers of vitamin E and carotenoids are more efficient antioxidants than single synthetic isomers.Working synergistically, vitamin E and carotenoids protect lipids and membrane structure from oxidation damage.Malondialdehyde (MDA) is a product of lipid peroxidation. Interactions between MDA membrane components result in disturbed structure and function of cell membranes.
An increased level of MDA and a decreased level of tocopherols in plasma were found in patients with gastric ulcer compared with healthy subjects (15). Eating seabuckthorn oil for two weeks improved the ulcer symptom, decreased the MDA level and increased the level of tocopherols in plasma. Intragastric administration of seabuckthorn berry oil had preventive and curative effects against gastric ulcer in rats. The anti-ulcerative effects were clearly associated with a decreased MDA level and an increased level of α-tocopherol in gastric mucosa (16,17).
In animal models, addition of sea buckthorn oils into feed inhibited lipid oxidation and damage of cellular structure induced by cold-exposure and chemicals. The effect was reflected as the suppression of MDA formation as well as the maintenance of normal cellular structure and activities of membrane-bound enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase, Na/K-ATPase, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) (1).

UROGENITAL MUCOSA

In topical application sea buckthorn oils and preparations containing sea buckthorn oil improve the health of mucous membranes of urogenital tract. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of sea buckthorn oils have been reported.
In topical treatment of patients with cervicitis, seabuckthorn seed oil and a suppository Shayoushuan
(containing 50% sea buckthorn seed oil and other herbal ingredients) were very effective (18,19).Wang (20) treated 30 patients suffering from partial erosion of the cervix with topically sprayed sea buckthorn seed oil, once a day. All the 30 cases were cured after three months of treatment.
Cervicitis and vaginal inflammation is often associated with decreased tissue levels of carotenoids and vitamin E,compounds enhancing differentiation and regeneration of epithelial cells (21,22). The positive effect of the seabuckthorn oil and Shayoushuan suppository was probably related to its high content of natural carotenoids and vitam E 

MOUTH MUCOSA

Sea buckthorn seed oil was topically used (3-4 times a day)to treat sixty children (4 months – 12 years old) with ulcerative stomatitis (23). All the sixty cases significantly improved after two days of treatment. Fifty-five cases were cured after 3-5 days of treatment, and two severe cases were cured after 8 days of treatment. Topical application of sea buckthorn seed oil was effective in treating stomatitis of patients with leukemia (24).
Orally taken sea buckthorn seed oil,pulp oil and a mixture of seed and pulp oils improved esophagitis caused by irradiation therapy (25). Carotenoids and vitamin E in the oils were suggested to be responsible for the clear tissue-regenerative effects observed. A synergistic effect between other herbal components and sea buckthorn oil in experimental models of irradiation esophagitis in rats was highlighted by Li and colleagues (26).
Dry mouth (xerostomia) is a common clinical complaint affecting up to 40% of adults, mainly women and the elderly. Dry mouth, often a symptom of salivary gland dysfunction, provokes unpleasant oral symptoms such as burning mouth, difficulty in speaking, chewing and swallowing. Oral treatment with sea buckthorn oil (a mixture of pulp oil and seed oil) capsules (5 g oil per day) for four weeks effectively relieved the dry mouth symptoms and improved the general condition of mouth mucosa (27).

GASTRIC MUCOSA

In a clinical experiment involving thirty cases of peptic ulcer(3), the patients took orally twelve sea buckthorn oil capsules daily for one month. A curing rate of 76.6% and a total effective rate of 96.7% were reported. Sea buckthorn oil was also used as an adjuvant treatment of 116 peptic ulcer patients, 71 with duodenal ulcer and 45 with gastric ulcer. Oral application of sea buckthorn oil relieved pain and accelerated the repair process of gastric and duodenal epithelial tissue and mucosa (4).
Protective and curative effects of sea buckthorn seed andpulp oils against gastric ulcer have been extensively investigated using animal models.
Intragastric seed oil protected rat gastric mucosa from reserpine-, water-immersionand pylorus-ligation-induced ulcer (5-7). Seed oil speeded up the healing of acetic acid- and reserpine-induced ulcers (7,8).
In these studies, sea buckthorn oil treatment decreased the ulcer index by 40-60%. Similar studies showed ulcer preventive and curative effects of oils from pulp/peel (7-9) and whole berries of sea buckthorn
(7,10). Oil isolation technology may have an impact on the anti-ulcerative efficacy of sea buckthorn oils by influencing the oil compositions. anti-ulcerative effects of
sea buckthorn seed oil and pulp oil extracted by supercritical CO2 (7).
The anti-ulcerative mechanism of sea buckthorn oils was related to promoting the regeneration of mucous membranes and the epithelialisation of ulcer areas (10). Sea buckthorn oil also inhibited gastric secretion (8) and proteolytic activity within gastric mucosa (10).
Furthermore, increasing the hydrophobicity of the surface of mucosa and retarding gastric emptying was suggested to be among the mechanisms involved.
β-sitosterol and β-sitosterol-β-D-glucoside in seabuckthorn oils are important for the anti-ulcerative activity(11-13). The efficacy of the two compounds may differ depending on the cause of ulcer formation (14).

IMMUNE FONCTION

Sea buckthorn oils are known to regulate immune functions and antagonise the effects of immune suppressants (1). Feeding sea buckthorn oil to mice increased the phagocyticity of abdominal macrophages and spleen NK cell activity as well as SRBC (sheep red blood cell)-primed antibody production in normal and cyclophosphamide (an immunesuppressant)-treated mice. In clinical cancer treatment, per oral sea buckthorn oil has been used to reduce the immunesuppressive and hemotoxic effects of chemotherapy and irradiation therapy.

REFERENCE

1. B. Yang; Lipophilic components of sea buckthorn(Hippophaë rhamnoides) seeds and berries and physiological effects of sea buckthorn oil. ISBN 951-29-2221-5, University of Turku, Finland, 2001
2. B. Yang, H. Kallio; Trends Food Sci. Technol. 13 160-167(2002)
3. G.Q. Qiu, X. Qiao; Hippophaë 10 (4) 39-41 (1997)
4. V.A. Nikitin, A.A. Chistyakov, V.I. Bugaeva; Khirurgia 4 33-35 (1989)
5. Y. Zhou, J. Jiang, Y. Song, S. Sun; Hippophaë 7 (2) 33-36(1994)
6. X.P. Che, H.R. Huo, N. Zhao, W.Y. Feng, X.H. Zhang;Hippophaë 11 (4), 38-40 (1998)
7. J. Xing, B. Yang, Y. Dong, B. Wang, J. Wang, H. Kallio;Fitoterapia 73 644-650 (2002)
8. W. Zhou; Academic Journal of Second Military Medical University of China 7 (6) 468-469 (1986)
9. V.A. Mironov, T.N. Guseva-Donskaya, Yu.Yu. Dubrovina,G.A. Osipova, E.A. Shabanova, A.A. Nikulin, N. Sh. Amirov,  I.G. Trubitsina; in: Nov. v Biol. Khimii I Farmakol. Oblepikhi,Novosibirsk, SO AN SSSR, 1991, pp.114-121
10. A.S. Loginov, V.A. Mironov, N.Sh. Amirov, G.S. Aruin, V.S.Matrosov, I.E. Trubitsyna, B.Z. Chikunova; Patol. Fiziol. Eksp.Ter. 6 67-70 (1983)
11. Z. Jiang, G. Li; Academic Journal of Second Military MedicalUniversity of China 8(2) 119 (1987)
12. Z.Y. Jiang, D.H. Qian, Y. Sai; "Effects of sea buckthorn seed oil against gastric ulcer" in: Proceedings of International Symposium on Sea Buckthorn (H. rhamnoides L.), Xi`an,China, 1989, pp.294-295
13. J.J. Romero, L.M. Lichtenberger; Dig. Dis. Sci. 35 (10) 1231-1238 (1990)
14. M. Xiao, Z. Yang, M. Liu, L. You R. Xiao; Academic Journal of Huaxi Medical University 23 (1) 98-101 (1992)
15 A.R. Wu, Y.C. Su, J.F. Li, Q.L. Liu, J.X. Lu, X.P. Che, C.M.Qian, X.Z. Wei; Hippophaë 5 (2) 22-25 (1992)
16. G.N. Wang; Hippophaë 6 (3) 31 (1993)
17. J. Wang; Hippophaë 8 (2) 37-38 (1995)
18. P.R. Palan, S.L. Romney; Cancer Res. 39 3114-3118 (1979)
19. S.L. Romney, P.R. Palan, C. Duttagupta, S. Wassertheil-Smoller, J. Wylie, G. Miller, N.S. Slagle, D. Lucido; Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 141 890-894 (1981)
20. L. J. Wang; Hippophaë 5 (2) 32 (1992)
21. Wang, R.; Hu, Z. Y. Practical Journal of Combined Chinese Traditional Medicine and Western Medicine 7 (12), 729-730 (1994)
22. W.L. Zhang, Z. F. Zhang, J.J. Fan, S.Y. Yang, Z.M. Li, Z.C.Deng, G.L. Wang, F.S. Zhang. Hippophaë 1 (1) 27-30 (1988)
23. Z.M. Li, Z.C. Deng, H.L. An, W.L. Zhang, Z.F. Zhang, L. Ge,S.X. Sun;Hippophaë 2 (4) 37-40 (1989)
24. A.M. Le Bell, E. Söderling, I.Rantanen, B. Yang, H. Kallio;Poster at the Eightieth General Session & Exhibition of International Association for Dental Research (IADR), March 6-9, San Diego, USA, 2002
25. I.I. Degtyareva, E.Ts. Toteva, E.V. Litinskaya, A.V. Matvienko,N.N. Yurzhenko, L.N. Leonov, E.V. Khomenko, V.P.Nevstruev; Klin. Meditsina 69 (7) 38-42 (1991)
26. L.V. Krichkovskaya, R.N. Dementij, A.K. Zyabchenkova;"Research on the antioxidative property of sea buckthorn oil and Akeol" in: Scientific Communication, Wugong Agricultural Research Center, Shaanxi Province ed. Advances in the Biochemical and Pharmacological Research on Sea Buckthorn; Wugong Publishing House, Wugong, Shannxi Province, China, 1992, pp.141-142
27. D.T.S. Tsybikova, N.N. Feddtdvskaya, G.Z.H. Darzhapova,S.M. Nikolaev, M.N. Bolotova; "Chemical and pharmacological characteristics of fat-soluble compounds in
sea buckthorn press residue" in: Scientific Communication,
Wugong Agricultural Research Center, Shaanxi Province ed.
Advances in the Biochemical and Pharmacological Research
on Sea Buckthorn; Wugong Publishing House, Wugong,
Shannxi Province, China, 1992, pp.141-142

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